Transformational Leadership’s Impact on Teacher’s Work Performance through the mediation of Organization Culture: Literature Review Transformational Leadership’s Impact on Teacher’s Work Performance through the mediation of Organization Culture

Main Article Content

Lin Chunhui
Ali Sorayyaei Azar
Albattat Ahmad

Resumen

Leadership styles in an organization substantially impact the success of the organization and the productivity of its employees. However, what transformational leadership entails and its effect on teacher effectiveness as well as the influencing factors between leadership style and work performance remains unknown. This paper's objective is to undertake an empirical literature review of current studies on the extent which transformational leadership affects teachers' job performance and the organizational culture's mediating role. Based on the literature review, it reaches two conclusions: Firstly, there is a positive correlation between transformational leadership and teachers' job performance. Secondly, organizational culture plays a crucial mediating role between transformational leadership and performance. Hence, it is reasonable to conduct additional research on the impact of transformational leadership, particularly for specific dimensions’ effect on the performance of teachers through the mediating role of a school’s organizational culture. It is also highlighted that school leaders should recognize the significance of school culture and thus work hard to cultivate a conducive and pleasant work environment and organizational culture.

Descargas

La descarga de datos todavía no está disponible.

Article Details

Cómo citar
Chunhui, L., Azar, A., & Ahmad, A. (2024). Transformational Leadership’s Impact on Teacher’s Work Performance through the mediation of Organization Culture: Literature Review. UCJC Business and Society Review (formerly Known As Universia Business Review), 21(80). Recuperado a partir de https://journals.ucjc.edu/ubr/article/view/4589
Sección
Desarrollo Territorial Sostenible
Biografía del autor/a

Lin Chunhui, Graduate School of Management, Post Graduate Centre, Management and Science University, University Drive, Off Persiaran Olahraga, Section 13, 40100 Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia.

Lin Chunhui is a Lecturer at Yulin Normal University, China; Visiting scholar at California State University, Fullerton, USA; A PhD candidate in Management, Management & Science University (MSU), Malaysia. In a career spanning 16 years, she has worked as an ESL Lecturer and researcher. She has published and presented research papers on her interest topics namely ESL teaching and management.

Albattat Ahmad, Associate Professor, Postgradaute Centre, Management and Science University, Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia

Dr. Ahmad R. Albattat, is an Associate Professor, Postgradaute Centre, Management and Science University, Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia. He holds a doctoral degree in Hospitality Management from University Sains Malaysia (USM), he worked as an Assistant Professor in Ammon Applied University College, Amman, Jordan. He worked as a Senior Lecturer and research coordinator in School of Hospitality & Creative Arts, Management and Science University, Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia, and worked as a researcher at Sustainable Tourism Research Cluster (STRC), Pulau Pinang, Malaysia. He was working for the Jordanian hospitality industry for 17 years. He has participated and presented research papers in several academic conferences held in Malaysia, Taiwan, Thailand, Indonesia, Srilanka, and Jordan. He is an active member of the Scientific and Editorial Review Board on Hospitality management, hotel, tourism, events, emergency planning, disaster and crisis management, human resource for the Journal of Tourism Management, Journal of Hospitality Marketing & Management (JHMM), Current Issues in Tourism (CIT), Asia-Pacific Journal of Innovation in Hospitality and Tourism (APJIHT), International Journal of Economics and Management (IJEAM), AlmaTourism, Journal of Tourism, Culture and Territorial Development, International Journal of Tourism and Sustainable Community Development. His latest works have been published in refereed international journals and conference proceedings.

Citas

Adeinat, I. M., & Abdulfatah, F. H. (2019). Organizational culture and knowledge management processes: case study in a public university. VINE Journal of Information and Knowledge Management Systems, 49(1), 35-53. https://doi.org/10.1108/VJIKMS-05-2018-0041
Afsar, B., Shahjehan, A., Shah, S. I., & Wajid, A. (2019). The mediating role of transformational leadership in the relationship between cultural intelligence and employee voice behavior: A case of hotel employees. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 69, 66-75. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijintrel.2019.01.001
Al Tahitah, A. N. A. (2019). The effect of transformational and transactional leadership on readiness for change in the educational ministries in Yemen: learning organizational culture as a mediator Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia]. https://oarep.usim.edu.my/jspui/handle/123456789/7615
Alkhadra, W. A., Khawaldeh, S., & Aldehayyat, J. (2022). Relationship of ethical leadership, organizational culture, corporate social responsibility and organizational performance: a test of two mediation models. International Journal of Ethics and Systems(ahead-of-print). https://doi.org/10.1108/IJOES-05-2022-0092
Amor, A. M., Vázquez, J. P. A., & Faíña, J. A. (2020). Transformational leadership and work engagement: Exploring the mediating role of structural empowerment. European Management Journal, 38(1), 169-178. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.emj.2019.06.007
Andriani, S., Kesumawati, N., & Kristiawan, M. (2018). The influence of the transformational leadership and work motivation on teachers performance. International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research, 7(7), 19-29.
Arar, K., & Nasra, M. A. (2020). Linking school-based management and school effectiveness: The influence of self-based management, motivation and effectiveness in the Arab education system in Israel. Educational Management Administration & Leadership, 48(1), 186-204. https://doi.org/10.1177/1741143218775428
Asatiani, A., Hämäläinen, J., Penttinen, E., & Rossi, M. (2021). Constructing continuity across the organisational culture boundary in a highly virtual work environment. Information systems journal, 31(1), 62-93. https://doi.org/10.1111/isj.12293
Asbari, M., Purwanto, A., Ong, F., Mustikasiwi, A., Maesaroh, S., Mustofa, M., Hutagalung, D., & Andriyani, Y. (2020). Impact of hard skills, soft skills and organizational culture: lecturer innovation competencies as mediating. EduPsyCouns: Journal of Education, Psychology and Counseling, 2(1), 101-121. https://ummaspul.e-journal.id/Edupsycouns/article/view/419
Aunga, D. A., & Masare, O. (2017). Effect of leadership styles on teacher’s performance in primary schools of Arusha District Tanzania. International Journal of Educational Policy Research and Review, 4(4), 42-52. https://doi.org/10.15739/IJEPRR.17.006
Baptiste, M. (2019). No Teacher Left Behind: The Impact of Principal Leadership Styles on Teacher Job Satisfaction and Student Success. Journal of International education and leadership, 9(1), n1.
Bass, B. M., & Avolio, B. J. (1993). Transformational leadership and organizational culture. Public administration quarterly, 112-121. https://www.jstor.org/stable/40862298
Bass, B. M., & Riggio, R. E. (2010). The transformational model of leadership. Leading organizations: Perspectives for a new era, 2, 76-86.
Bose, S., Patnaik, B., & Mohanty, S. (2021). The mediating role of psychological empowerment in the relationship between transformational leadership and organizational identification of employees. The journal of applied behavioral science, 57(4), 490-510. https://doi.org/10.1177/0021886320920951
Brouwers, M., & Paltu, A. (2020). Toxic leadership: Effects on job satisfaction, commitment, turnover intention and organisational culture within the South African manufacturing industry. SA Journal of Human Resource Management, 18(1), 1-11. https://hdl.handle.net/10520/EJC-1fa457614d
Buil, I., Martínez, E., & Matute, J. (2019). Transformational leadership and employee performance: The role of identification, engagement and proactive personality. International journal of hospitality management, 77, 64-75. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhm.2018.06.014
Cassar, V., Bezzina, F., & Buttigieg, S. C. (2017). The relationship between transformational leadership and work attitudes: Comparing mediating influences of social identity and the psychological contract. Leadership & Organization Development Journal. https://doi.org/10.1108/LODJ-11-2015-0248
Chan, S. W., Ang, S. F., Andleeb, N., Ahmad, M., & Zaman, I. (2019). The influence of transformational leadership on organization innovation in Malaysian manufacturing industry. International Journal of Supply Chain Management, 8(2), 971-976.
Chen, C.-Y., Tsai, S., Chen, H.-W., & Wu, H.-T. (2016). The relationship between the principal's positive leadership and school effectiveness–take school organizational culture as the mediator. European Journal of Psychological Research Vol, 3(2), 12-23.
Christopoulos, A., & Sprangers, P. (2021). Integration of educational technology during the Covid-19 pandemic: An analysis of teacher and student receptions. Cogent Education, 8(1), 1964690. https://doi.org/10.1080/2331186X.2021.1964690
Clark, B. R., & Trow, M. (1966). The organizational context. College peer groups: Problems and prospects for research, 17-70. https://doi.org/10.1002/aur.2276
de Leeuw, A., Happé, F., & Hoekstra, R. A. (2020). A conceptual framework for understanding the cultural and contextual factors on autism across the globe. Autism Research, 13(7), 1029-1050. https://doi.org/10.1002/aur.2276
Denison, D. R., & Spreitzer, G. M. (1991). Organizational culture and organizational development: A competing values approach. Research in organizational change and development, 5(1), 1-21.
Dong, Y., Bartol, K. M., Zhang, Z. X., & Li, C. (2017). Enhancing employee creativity via individual skill development and team knowledge sharing: Influences of dual‐focused transformational leadership. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 38(3), 439-458. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.2134

Eliyana, A., & Ma’arif, S. (2019). Job satisfaction and organizational commitment effect in the transformational leadership towards employee performance. European Research on Management and Business Economics, 25(3), 144-150. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.iedeen.2019.05.001
Elshanti, M. (2017). Transformational leadership style and organizational learning: The mediate effect of organizational culture. International Journal of Economics & Management Sciences, 6(06).
Farooq, A., Dilshad, S. A., & Qadir, S. (2022). A Study of Leadership Styles and Teachers’ Performance. Competitive Education Research Journal, 3(1), 373-385. http://cerjournal.com/index.php/cerjournal/article/view/86
Fitria, H. (2018). The influence of organizational culture and trust through the teacher performance in the private secondary school in Palembang. International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research, 7(7), 82-86.
Fitria, H., Mukhtar, M., & Akbar, M. (2017). The Effect of Organizational Structure And Leadership Style on Teacher Performance In Private Secondary School. IJHCM (International Journal of Human Capital Management), 1(02), 101-112. https://doi.org/10.21009/IJHCM.01.02.12
Fraser-Burgess, S. (2020). Accountability and troubling the caring ideal in the classroom: A call to teacher citizenry. Educational studies, 56(5), 456-481. https://doi.org/10.1080/00131946.2020.1799216
Ghadi, M. Y., Fernando, M., & Caputi, P. (2013). Transformational leadership and work engagement: The mediating effect of meaning in work. Leadership & Organization Development Journal. https://doi.org/10.1108/LODJ-10-2011-0110
Gkolia, A., Koustelios, A., & Belias, D. (2018). Exploring the association between transformational leadership and teacher’s self-efficacy in Greek education system: A multilevel SEM model. International Journal of Leadership in Education, 21(2), 176-196. https://doi.org/10.1080/13603124.2015.1094143
Golden III, J. H., & Shriner, M. (2019). Examining relationships between transformational leadership and employee creative performance: The moderator effects of organizational culture. The journal of creative behavior, 53(3), 363-376. https://doi.org/10.1002/jocb.216
Handayani, N. P. (2018). Transformational leadership and employee engagement as a determinant of organizational citizenship behavior: Case study on youth non-profit organization. International Journal of Social Science and Humanity, 8(2), 59-64.
Hasan, M. N. (2017). Influence of work motivation, leadership and organizational culture principal of the teacher performance in vocational school (SMK) Muhammadiyah, Rembang City, Central Java Province, Indonesia. European Journal of Business and Management, 9(2), 36-44.
Ilham, R. (2018). The impact of organizational culture and leadership style on job satisfaction and employee performance. Journal of Advanced Management Science, 6(1), 50-53. http://www.joams.com/uploadfile/2018/0329/20180329...
Isensee, C., Teuteberg, F., Griese, K.-M., & Topi, C. (2020). The relationship between organizational culture, sustainability, and digitalization in SMEs: A systematic review. Journal of Cleaner Production, 275, 122944. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2020.122944
Jamali, A., Bhutto, A., Khaskhely, M., & Sethar, W. (2022). Impact of leadership styles on faculty performance: Moderating role of organizational culture in higher education. Management Science Letters, 12(1), 1-20. DOI: 10.5267/j.msl.2021.8.005
Jianxun, C., Arkorful, V. E., & Shuliang, Z. (2021). Electronic health records adoption: Do institutional pressures and organizational culture matter? Technology in Society, 65, 101531. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.techsoc.2021.101531
Jung, J.-Y. (2022). The Effect of Authentic Leadership of Deans and Directors on Sustainable Organizational Commitment at Universities: Mediated by Organizational Culture and Trust. Sustainability, 14(17), 11051. https://doi.org/10.3390/su141711051
Kargas, A. D., & Varoutas, D. (2015). On the relation between organizational culture and leadership: An empirical analysis. Cogent Business & Management, 2(1), 1055953. https://doi.org/10.1080/23311975.2015.1055953
Kartini, K., Sujanto, B., & Mukhtar, M. (2017). The influence of organizational climate, transformational leadership, and work motivation on teacher job performance. IJHCM (International Journal of Human Capital Management), 1(01), 192-205. https://doi.org/10.21009/IJHCM.01.01.15
Khan, H., Rehmat, M., Butt, T. H., Farooqi, S., & Asim, J. (2020). Impact of transformational leadership on work performance, burnout and social loafing: A mediation model. Future Business Journal, 6, 1-13. https://doi.org/10.1186/s43093-020-00043-8
Khan, M. A., Ismail, F. B., Hussain, A., & Alghazali, B. (2020). The interplay of leadership styles, innovative work behavior, organizational culture, and organizational citizenship behavior. SAGE Open, 10(1), 2158244019898264. https://doi.org/10.1177/2158244019898264
Khaola, P., & Rambe, P. (2021). The effects of transformational leadership on organisational citizenship behaviour: The role of organisational justice and affective commitment. Management Research Review, 44(3), 381-398. https://doi.org/10.1108/MRR-07-2019-0323
Latif, H., Majoka, M. I., & Khan, M. I. (2017). Emotional intelligence and job performance of high school female teachers. Pakistan Journal of Psychological Research, 32(2). https://pjpr.scione.com/cms/abstract.php?id=192
Leithwood, K., & Jantzi, D. (1990). Transformational leadership: How principals can help reform school cultures. School effectiveness and school improvement, 1(4), 249-280. https://doi.org/10.1080/0924345900010402
Liu, H., Bracht, E., Zhang, X. a., Bradley, B., & van Dick, R. (2021). Creativity in non‐routine jobs: The role of transformational leadership and organizational identification. Creativity and Innovation Management, 30(1), 129-143. https://doi.org/10.1111/caim.12419
Maheshwari, G. (2022). Influence of teacher-perceived transformational and transactional school leadership on teachers’ job satisfaction and performance: a case of Vietnam. Leadership and Policy in Schools, 21(4), 876-890. https://doi.org/10.1080/15700763.2020.1866020
Mangkunegara, A. A. P. (2009). Perencanaan dan pengembangan sumber daya manusia.
Martínez-Caro, E., Cegarra-Navarro, J. G., & Alfonso-Ruiz, F. J. (2020). Digital technologies and firm performance: The role of digital organisational culture. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 154, 119962. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.techfore.2020.119962
Maryati, E., Fitria, H., & Rohana, R. (2020). the influence of principal’s leadership style and organizational culture on teacher’s performance. Journal of Social Work and Science Education, 1(2), 127-139. https://doi.org/10.52690/jswse.v1i2.38
Metwally, D., Ruiz-Palomino, P., Metwally, M., & Gartzia, L. (2019). How ethical leadership shapes employees’ readiness to change: The mediating role of an organizational culture of effectiveness. Frontiers in Psychology, 10, 2493. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.02493
Mi, L., Gan, X., Xu, T., Long, R., Qiao, L., & Zhu, H. (2019). A new perspective to promote organizational citizenship behaviour for the environment: The role of transformational leadership. Journal of Cleaner Production, 239, 118002. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2019.118002
Miao, R., & Cao, Y. (2019). High-performance work system, work well-being, and employee creativity: Cross-level moderating role of transformational leadership. International journal of environmental research and public health, 16(9), 1640. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16091640
Mubarok, E. S. (2019). The Effect of Organizational Culture and Work Motivation on Employee Performance: The Mediating Role of Job Satisfaction. European Journal of Business and Management, 11(35), 2222-1905. https://doi.org/10.7176/EJBM/11-35-09
Mulyana, Y. (2021). The influence of motivation, ability, organizational culture, work environment on teachers performance. Turkish Journal of Computer and Mathematics Education (TURCOMAT), 12(7), 99-108. https://doi.org/10.17762/turcomat.v12i7.2549
Naranjo-Valencia, J. C., Jiménez-Jiménez, D., & Sanz-Valle, R. (2016). Studying the links between organizational culture, innovation, and performance in Spanish companies. Revista Latinoamericana de Psicología, 48(1), 30-41. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rlp.2015.09.009
Naveed, R. T., Alhaidan, H., Al Halbusi, H., & Al-Swidi, A. K. (2022). Do organizations really evolve? The critical link between organizational culture and organizational innovation toward organizational effectiveness: Pivotal role of organizational resistance. Journal of Innovation & Knowledge, 7(2), 100178. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jik.2022.100178
Ng, T. W. (2017). Transformational leadership and performance outcomes: Analyses of multiple mediation pathways. The Leadership Quarterly, 28(3), 385-417. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2016.11.008
Novitasari, D., Supiana, N., Supriatna, H., Fikri, M. A. A., & Asbari, M. (2021). The role of leadership on innovation performance: Transactional versus transformational style. JIMFE (Jurnal Ilmiah Manajemen Fakultas Ekonomi), 7(1), 27-36. https://doi.org/10.34203/jimfe.v7i1.2981
Nurjanah, S., Pebianti, V., & Handaru, A. W. (2020). The influence of transformational leadership, job satisfaction, and organizational commitments on Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) in the inspectorate general of the Ministry of Education and Culture. Cogent Business & Management, 7(1), 1793521. https://doi.org/10.1080/23311975.2020.1793521
Okure, D. U. (2022). Impacts of organisational culture on academic efficiency and productivity in selected private universities in the Niger delta region of Nigeria. Higher Education Quarterly. https://doi.org/10.1111/hequ.12397
Quinn, R. E., & Rohrbaugh, J. . (1983). A spatial model of effectiveness criteria: Towards a competing values approach organisational analysis Management Science Letters, 29(3), 363-377. https://doi.org/10.1287/mnsc.29.3.363
Rivai, R., Gani, M. U., & Murfat, M. Z. (2019). Organizational culture and organizational climate as a determinant of motivation and teacher performance. Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal, 6(2). https://doi.org/10.14738/assrj.62.6267
Rodrigues, A. d. O., & Ferreira, M. C. (2015). The impact of transactional and transformational leadership style on organizational citizenship behaviors. Psico-USF, 20, 493-504. https://doi.org/10.1590/1413-82712015200311
SALIM, A., & RAJPUT, N. A. R. (2021). The relationship between transformational leadership, prosocial behavioral intentions, and organizational performance. The Journal of Asian Finance, Economics and Business, 8(1), 487-493. https://doi.org/10.13106/jafeb.2021.vol8.no1.487
Sanchez, J. E., Paul, J. M., & Thornton, B. W. (2022). Relationships among teachers’ perceptions of principal leadership and teachers’ perceptions of school climate in the high school setting. International Journal of Leadership in Education, 25(6), 855-875. https://doi.org/10.1080/13603124.2019.1708471
Schein, E. H. (2010). Organizational culture and leadership (Vol. 2). John Wiley & Sons.
Schneider, B., Ehrhart, M. G., & Macey, W. H. (2013). Organizational climate and culture. Annual review of psychology, 64(1), 361-388. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-psych-113011-143809
Selamat, N., Nordin, N., & Adnan, A. A. (2013). Rekindle teacher's organizational commitment: the effect of transformational leadership behavior. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 90, 566-574. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.07.127
Shah, S. S., Shah, A. A., & Pathan, S. K. (2017). The relationship of perceived leadership styles of department heads to job satisfaction and job performance of faculty members. Journal of Business Strategies, 11(2), 35-56. http://greenwichjournals.com/index.php/businessstudies/article/view/376
Shao, Z. (2019). Interaction effect of strategic leadership behaviors and organizational culture on IS-Business strategic alignment and Enterprise Systems assimilation. International journal of information management, 44, 96-108. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijinfomgt.2018.09.010
Shim, H. S., Jo, Y., & Hoover, L. T. (2015). Police transformational leadership and organizational commitment: Mediating role of organizational culture. Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management. https://doi.org/10.1108/PIJPSM-05-2015-0066
Srimulyani, V. A., & Hermanto, Y. B. (2022). Organizational culture as a mediator of credible leadership influence on work engagement: empirical studies in private hospitals in East Java, Indonesia. Humanities and Social Sciences Communications, 9(1), 1-11. https://doi.org/10.1057/s41599-022-01289-z
Sunarto, A., Tanjung, A. W., & Ellesia, N. (2020). Teacher Performance Based on The Visionary Leadership Style of School, Competency and Work Discipline (Study at Muhammadiyah Setiabudi Pamulang College). Journal of Research in Business, Economics, and Education, 2(5), 1046-1052.
Tesluk, P. E., Farr, J. L., & Klein, S. R. (1997). Influences of organizational culture and climate on individual creativity. The journal of creative behavior, 31(1), 27-41. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.2162-6057.1997.tb00779.x
Tierney, W. G. (2016). The impact of culture on organizational decision-making: Theory and practice in higher education. Stylus Publishing, LLC.
Tims, M., Bakker, A. B., & Xanthopoulou, D. (2011). Do transformational leaders enhance their followers' daily work engagement? The Leadership Quarterly, 22(1), 121-131. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2010.12.011
Ting, I. W. K., Sui, H. J., Kweh, Q. L., & Nawanir, G. (2021). Knowledge management and firm innovative performance with the moderating role of transformational leadership. Journal of Knowledge Management. https://doi.org/10.1108/JKM-08-2020-0629
Torlak, N. G., Demir, A., & Budur, T. (2022). Decision-making, leadership and performance links in private education institutes. Rajagiri Management Journal, 16(1), 63-85. https://doi.org/10.1108/RAMJ-10-2020-0061
Ur Rehman, S., Bhatti, A., & Chaudhry, N. I. (2019). Mediating effect of innovative culture and organizational learning between leadership styles at third-order and organizational performance in Malaysian SMEs. Journal of Global Entrepreneurship Research, 9(1), 1-24. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40497-019-0159-1
Virgiawan, A. R., Riyanto, S., & Endri, E. (2021). Organizational culture as a mediator motivation and transformational leadership on employee performance. Academic Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies, 10(3), 67-67. DOI: https://doi.org/10.36941/ajis-2021-0065
Walsh, M. M., & Arnold, K. A. (2020). The bright and dark sides of employee mindfulness: Leadership style and employee well‐being. Stress and Health, 36(3), 287-298. https://doi.org/10.1002/smi.2926
WANASIDA, A. S., BERNARTO, I., SUDIBJO, N., & PRAMONO, R. (2021). Millennial transformational leadership on organizational performance in Indonesia fishery startup. The Journal of Asian Finance, Economics and Business, 8(2), 555-562. https://doi.org/10.13106/jafeb.2021.vol8.no2.0555
Wang, Z., Xu, S., Sun, Y., & Liu, Y. (2019). Transformational leadership and employee voice: An affective perspective. Frontiers of Business Research in China, 13(1), 1-14.
Wieczorek, D., & Manard, C. (2018). Instructional Leadership Challenges and Practices of Novice Principals in Rural Schools. Journal of Research in Rural Education, 34(2).
Windlinger, R., Warwas, J., & Hostettler, U. (2020). Dual effects of transformational leadership on teacher efficacy in close and distant leadership situations. School Leadership & Management, 40(1), 64-87. https://doi.org/10.1080/13632434.2019.1585339
Xenikou, A., & Simosi, M. (2006). Organizational culture and transformational leadership as predictors of business unit performance. Journal of managerial psychology. https://doi.org/10.1108/02683940610684409
Zhu, W., Avolio, B. J., & Walumbwa, F. O. (2009). Moderating role of follower characteristics with transformational leadership and follower work engagement. Group & organization management, 34(5), 590-619. https://doi.org/10.1177/1059601108331242